It is now known that ‘robust’ refers solely to tooth and face size, not to the body size of P. robustus. This may indicate a walking gait more similar to early hominins than to modern humans (less efficient gait).  In 2020, DNH 152 was palaeomagnetically dated to 2.04–1.95 million years ago, making it the oldest confirmed P. robustus specimen.  With the popularisation of cladistics by the late 1970s to 1980s, and better resolution on how Miocene apes relate to later apes, Gigantopithecus was entirely removed from Homininae, and is now placed in the subfamily Ponginae with orangutans. , While removing the matrix encapsulating TM 1517, Schepers noted a large rock, which would have weighed 75 g (2.6 oz), which had driven itself into the braincase through the parietal bone. The continual prolonging of dry cycles may have caused its extinction, with the last occurrence in the fossil record 1–0.6 million years ago (though more likely 0.9 million years ago). In contrast, he estimated A. africanus (which he called "H." africanus) to have been 1.2–1.4 m (4–4.5 ft) tall and 18–27 kg (40–60 lb) in weight, and to have also been completely bipedal.  The Drimolen material preserves several basal characteristics relative to the Swartkrans and Kromdraai remains.  Such a strategy is similar to that used by modern gorillas, which can sustain themselves entirely on lower quality fallback foods year-round, as opposed to lighter built chimps (and presumably gracile australopithecines) which require steady access to high quality foods. It is unclear if frequent squatting could be a valid alternative interpretation. This displaced the eye sockets forward somewhat, causing a weak brow ridge and receding forehead.  Since then, hominin exploitation of USOs has gained more support. , The pelvis is similar to the pelvises of A. africanus and A. afarensis, but it has a wider iliac blade and smaller acetabulum and hip joint.  A molar from Drimolen showed a cavity on the tooth root, a rare occurrence in fossil great apes.  In 1981, English anthropologist Alan Walker, while studying the P. boisei skulls KNM-ER 406 and 729, pointed out that bite force is a measure of not only the total pressure exerted but also the surface area of the tooth over which the pressure is being exerted, and Paranthropus teeth are 4–5 times the size of modern human teeth. Like the East African Olduvai Bed I (2.03–1.75 million years ago) and Lower Bed II (1.75–1.70 million years ago), Member 1 preserved the antelope Parmularius angusticornis, the wildebeest, and the Cape buffalo. During glacial events, with more ice locked up at the poles, the tropical rain belt contracted towards the equator, subsequently causing the retreat of wetland and woodland environments. Like humans, the finger bones are uncurved and have weaker muscle attachment than non-human apes, though the proximal phalanges are smaller than in humans. erectus. africanus fossils he’d found during his career, he knew he was on to something different. , In 2004, in their review of Paranthropus dietary literature, anthropologists Bernard Wood and David Strait concluded that Paranthropus were most definitely generalist feeders, and that P. robustus was an omnivore. While scientists have not found any stone tools associated with Paranthropus robustus fossils, experiments and microscopic studies of bone fragments show that these early humans probably used bones as tools to dig in termite mounds. In Australopithecus: Australopithecus robustus and Australopithecus boisei Broom’s choice of the name Paranthropus (meaning “to the side of humans”) reflects his view that this genus was not directly ancestral to later hominins, and it has long been viewed as a distant side branch on the human evolutionary tree. , Though P. robustus was a rather hardy species with a tolerance for environmental variability, it seems to have preferred wooded environments, and similarly most P. robustus remains date to a wet period in South Africa 2–1.75 million years ago conducive to such biomes.  Broom noted the Kromdraai remains were especially robust compared to other hominins. 2.2–1.5 million years ago), possessing a small brain, small incisors and canines, and large postcanine dentition, considered a side branch of the human phylogenetic tree. Paranthropus robustus is an example of a robust australopithecine; they had very large megadont cheek teeth with thick enamel and focused their chewing in the back of the jaw. robustus.  In TM 1517, fusion of the elements of the distal humerus (at the elbow joint) occurred before the fusion of the elements in the distal big toe phalanx, much like in chimps and bonobos, but unlike humans, which could also indicate an apelike growth trajectory. Paranthropus robustus became the first "robust" species of hominid ever uncovered well before P. boisei and P. aethiopicus. The locomotor skeleton of eastern African P. boisei (2.2–1.3 mya) is poorly known, but there is no reason to assume that it was different from other Paranthropus species. Plio-Pleistocene hominins from South Africa remain poorly understood. , In 2017, anthropologist Katharine Balolia and colleagues postulated that, because male non-human great apes have a larger sagittal crest than females (particularly gorillas and orangutans), the crest may be influenced by sexual selection in addition to supporting chewing muscles.  In 2001, Polish anthropologist Katarzyna Kaszycka said that Broom quite often artificially inflated brain size in early hominins, and the true value was probably much lower. and Megantereon spp., and the hyena Lycyaenops silberbergi. Like humans, jaw robustness decreased with age, though it decreased slower in P. The only thoracolumbar series (thoracic and lumbar series) preserved belongs to the juvenile SKW 14002, and either represents the 1st to the 4th lumbar vertebrae, or the 2nd to the 5th. Paranthropus robustus (česky též Australopiték robustní) je druh vyhynulého hominida, žijící ve starším pleistocénu, před 2 - 1,5 miliony let v jižní Africe, na území dnešní Jihoafrické republiky. The other fossil hominins used for comparison with P. boisei include Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus, both from the Plio-Pleistocene of South Africa. The inflated cheeks also would have pushed the masseter muscle (important in biting down) forward and pushed the tooth rows back, which would have created a higher bite force on the premolars.  Australopithecines and early Homo likely preferred cooler conditions than later Homo, as there are no australopithecine sites that were below 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in elevation at the time of deposition. This could potentially indicate the lower limbs had a wider range of motion than those of modern humans.  Similarly, in 1988, American anthropologist Henry McHenry reported much lighter weights as well as notable sexual dimorphism for Paranthropus. Sponheimer, M., Passey, B.H., de Ruiter, D.J., Guatelli-Steinberg, D., Cerling, T.E., Lee-Thorp, J.A., 2006. , The genus Paranthropus (otherwise known as "robust australopithecines", in contrast to the "gracile australopithecines") now also includes the East African P. boisei and P. aethiopicus. Since circular holes in enamel coverage are uniform in size, only present on the molar teeth, and have the same severity across individuals, the PEH may have been a genetic condition. The paranthropines are a group of three species that range in time from c. 2.6 mya up to c. 1.2 mya.  Four femora assigned to P. robustus—SK 19, SK 82, SK 97, and SK 3121—exhibit an apparently high anisotropic trabecular bone (at the hip joint) structure, which could indicate reduced mobility of the hip joint compared to non-human apes, and the ability to produce forces consistent with humanlike bipedalism. From 1940s through 1970s, lots of debate whether this species represented the males of Au. The only potential Homo specimen from Member 3 is KB 5223, but its classification is debated. Termites are rich in protein, and would have been a nutritious source of food for Paranthropus.  The pelvis seems to indicate a more-or-less humanlike hip joint consistent with bipedalism, though differences in overall pelvic anatomy may indicate P. robustus used different muscles to generate force and perhaps had a different mechanism to direct force up the spine. Because both P. robustus and H. ergaster/H. , In 1939, Broom hypothesised that P. robustus was closely related to the similarly large-toothed ape Gigantopithecus from Asia (extinct apes were primarily known from Asia at the time) believing Gigantopithecus to have been a hominin. , The posterior semicircular canals in the inner ear of SK 46 and SK 47 are unlike those of the apelike Australopithecus or Homo, suggesting different locomotory and head movement patterns, since inner ear anatomy affects the vestibular system (sense of balance). Palaeomagnatism suggests Member 3 may date to 1.78–1.6 million years ago, Member 2 to before 1.78 million years ago, and Member 1 to 2.11–1.95 million years ago. robustus. , The Pleistocene Cradle of Humankind was mainly dominated by the springbok Antidorcas recki, but other antelope, giraffes, and elephants were also seemingly abundant megafauna. , Extinct species of hominin of South Africa, alveolar bone loss resulting from periodontal disease, "The Pleistocene Anthropoid Apes of South Africa", "Evidence for increased hominid diversity in the Early to Middle Pleistocene of Indonesia". “Paranthropus robustus” evolved sturdier skulls to be able to eat new, tough vegetation . He calculated the humerus-to-femur ratio of P. robustus by using the presumed female humerus of STS 7 and comparing it with the presumed male femur of STS 14. - defining characteristic of hominins - fossil pelves, crania, and legs, shows evolution of bipedalism ... Paranthropus robustus (Australopith) - **SOUTH AFRICA** (only real difference between robustus and boisei) - 2.0-1.2 mya - NOT as robust as boisei. Broadly speaking, the emergence of the first permanent molar in early hominins has been variously estimated anywhere from 2.5–4.5 years, which all contrast markedly with the modern human average of 5.8 years. In order for cavity-creating bacteria to reach this area, the individual would have also presented either alveolar resportion, which is commonly associated with gum disease; or super-eruption of the tooth which occurs when it becomes worn down and has to erupt a bit more in order to maintain a proper bite, exposing the root in the process.  In 1980, anthropologists Tom Hatley and John Kappelman suggested that early hominins (convergently with bears and pigs) adapted to eating abrasive and calorie-rich underground storage organs (USOs), such as roots and tubers.  Regardless if P. robustus followed a human or non-human ape dental development timeframe, the premolars and molars would have had an accelerated growth rate to achieve their massive size. This Paranthropus robustus skull is likely from a female, because it is smaller in size and has a smaller crest than males of this species. This is similar to the condition seen in A. africanus. P. robustus society may have been patrilocal, with adult females more likely to leave the group than males, but males may have been more likely to be evicted as indicated by higher male mortality rates and assumed increased risk of predation to solitary individuals. Based on the average of these two regressions, he reported an average weight of 47.1 kg (104 lb) for P. robustus using the specimens SK 82 and SK 97.  P. robustus has a tall face with slight prognathism (the jaw jutted out somewhat). Further, the size of the sagittal crest (and the gluteus muscles) in male western lowland gorillas has been correlated with reproductive success.  The form of P. robustus incisors appears to be intermediate between H. erectus and modern humans, which could possibly mean it did not have to regularly bite off mouthfuls of a large food item due to preparation with simple tools.  It is possible that South Africa was a refugium for Australopithecus until about 2 million years ago with the beginning of major climatic variability and volatility, and potentially competition with Homo and Paranthropus. Based on 3 specimens, males may have been 132 cm (4 ft 4 in) tall and females 110 cm (3 ft 7 in). The skulls of males have a well-defined sagittal crest on the midline of the skullcap and inflated cheek bones, which likely supported massive temporal muscles important in biting. , In 2007, anthropologist Charles Lockwood and colleagues pointed out that P. robustus appears to have had pronounced sexual dimorphism, with males notably larger than females. The premolars are shaped like molars. SK 46 preserves the left half of the braincase and the nearly complete palate of Paranthropus robustus. The brain volume of the specimen SK 1585 is estimated to have been 476 cc, and of DNH 155 about 450 cc (for comparison, the brain volume of contemporary Homo varied from 500–900 cc).  At this point in time, Australian anthropologist Raymond Dart had made the very first claim (quite controversially at the time) of an early ape-like human ancestor in 1924 from South Africa, Australopithecus africanus, based on the Taung child.  As an alternative to hominin activity, because the bones were not burnt inside the cave, and it is possible that they were naturally burnt in cyclically occurring wildfires (dry savanna grass as well as possible guano or plant accumulation in the cave may have left it susceptible to such a scenario), and then washed into what would become Member 3. P. robustus limb anatomy is similar to that of other australopithecines, which may indicate a less efficient walking ability than modern humans, and perhaps some degree of arboreality (movement in the trees).  The textural complexity of the kneecap SKX 1084, which reflects cartilage thickness and thus usage of the knee joint and bipedality, is midway between modern humans and chimps. It is unclear if P. robustus lived in a harem society like gorillas or a multi-male society like baboons. ... and that it coexisted with other early hominins. Eventually, scientists recognized that the 'robust' forms were different enough to be in their own species, originally called Australopithecus robustus.  The animal assemblage is broadly similar to that of Cooper's Cave, meaning they probably are about the same age. The carnivore assemblage comprises the sabertoothed cats Dinofelis spp. In August 1938, Broom classified the robust Kromdraai remains into a new genus as Paranthropus robustus.  In 2020, palaeoanthropologist Jesse M. Martin and colleagues' phylogenetic analyses reported the monophyly of Paranthropus, but also that P. robustus had branched off before P. aethiopicus (that P. aethiopicus was ancestral to only P. They concluded that these bones were, "the earliest direct evidence of fire use in the fossil record," and compared the temperatures with those achieved by experimental campfires burning white stinkwood which commonly grows near the cave. Patterns of resource use in early Homo and Paranthropus. Overall, the animal assemblage of the region broadly indicates a mixed, open-to-closed landscape featuring perhaps montane grasslands and shrublands. , Upon describing the species, Broom estimated the fragmentary braincase of TM 1517 as 600 cc, and he, along with South African anthropologist Gerrit Willem Hendrik Schepers, revised this to 575–680 cc in 1946. , At Sterkfontein, only the specimens StW 566 and StW 569 are firmly assigned to P. robustus, coming from the "Oldowan infill" dating to 2–1.7 million years ago in a section of Member 5. If the former is correct, then the difference may be due to different dietary habits, chewing strategies, more pathogenic mouth microflora in P. robustus, or some immunological difference which made P. robustus somewhat more susceptible to gum disease. He also reported an average of 22.2 years for A. africanus. , In 1968, American anthropologist Alan Mann, using dental maturity, stratified P. robustus specimens from Swartkrans into different ages, and found an average of 17.2 years at death (they did not necessarily die from old age), and the oldest specimen was 30–35 years old. africanus and "Pl. If P. robustus preferred a savanna habitat, a multi-male society would have been more conducive in defending the troop from predators in the more exposed environment, much like baboons which live in the savanna. , Given the marked anatomical and physical differences with modern great apes, there may be no modern analogue for australopithecine societies, so comparisons drawn with modern primates are highly speculative. In 2005, biological anthropologists Greg Laden and Richard Wrangham proposed that Paranthropus relied on USOs as a fallback or possibly primary food source, and noted that there may be a correlation between high USO abundance and hominin occupation. ", "Shaping Humanity: How Science, Art, and Imagination Help Us Understand Our Origins" (book by John Gurche), What Does It Mean To Be Human? robustus. In addition, it may have also eaten fruits, underground storage organs (such as roots and tubers), and perhaps honey and termites. But a few years ago, researchers uncovered two new skullcaps. P. robustus may have used bones as tools to extract and process food. Particularly regarding cranial features, the development of P. robustus seemed to be in the direction of a "heavy-chewing complex". He also noted that, compared to other australopithecines, Paranthropus seems to have had an expanded cerebellum like Homo, echoing what Tobias said while studying P. boisei skulls in 1967. boisei). The juvenile P. robustus skullcap SK 54 has two puncture marks consistent with the lower canines of the leopard specimen SK 349 from the same deposits. (book by Richard Potts and Chris Sloan). Based on this, he concluded babies were birthed at intervals of 3 to 4 years using a statistical test to maximise the number of children born. The cheeks project so far from the face that, when in top-view, the nose appears to sit at the bottom of a concavity (a dished face). 2 million years ago an upright walking group of hominins roamed Africa. Based on just these three, he reported an average height of 132 cm (4 ft 4 in) for P. robustus males and 110 cm (3 ft 7 in) for females. Because the chewing muscles are arranged the same way, Walker postulated that the heavy build was instead an adaptation to chew a large quantity of food at the same time. They found that the microwear patterns in P. robustus suggest hard food was infrequently consumed, and therefore the heavy build of the skull was only relevant when eating less desirable fallback foods. Proponents of paraphyly allocate these three species to the genus Australopithecus as A. boisei, A. aethiopicus, and A. palaeojavanicus".  Using this and palaeomagnetism, it may date to roughly 1.8 million years ago. However, laser ablation stable isotope analysis reveals that the delta13C values of Paranthropus robustus individuals often …  The ear bones of the juvenile KB 6067 from Member 3 is consistent with that of P. robustus, but the dimensions of the cochlea and oval window better align with the more ancient StW 53 from Sterkfontein Member 4 with undetermined species designation. " In 1985, British biologists Paul H. Harvey and Tim Clutton-Brock came up with equations relating body size to life history events for primates, which McHenry applied to australopithecines in 1994. For P. robustus, he reported newborn brain size of 175 cc and weight of 1.9 kg (4.2 lb), gestation 7.6 months, weaning after 30.1 months of age, maturation age 9.7 years, breeding age 11.4 years, birth interval 45 months, and lifespan 43.3 years. The Evolution of Religious Belief: Seeking Deep Evolutionary Roots, Laboring for Science, Laboring for Souls: Obstacles and Approaches to Teaching and Learning Evolution in the Southeastern United States, Public Event : Religious Audiences and the Topic of Evolution: Lessons from the Classroom (video), Evolution and the Anthropocene: Science, Religion, and the Human Future, Imagining the Human Future: Ethics for the Anthropocene, I Came from Where? In 1938, a schoolboy found some fossil fragments on a hillside at Kromdraai in South Africa. boisei.  Regarding the dural venous sinuses, in 1983, Falk and anthropologist Glenn Conroy suggested that, unlike A. africanus or modern humans, all Paranthropus (and A. afarensis) had expanded occipital and marginal (around the foramen magnum) sinuses, completely supplanting the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. In a harem society, males are more likely to be evicted from the group given higher male–male competition over females, and lone males may have been put at a higher risk of predation.  The animal remains of Kromdraai A suggest deposition occurred anywhere between 1.89 and 1.63 million years ago, and the presence of Oldowan or Achulean tools indicates early Homo activity. Nuts and bolts classification: Arbitrary or not? Earlier members yielded A. africanus.  In addition, these two species resided alongside Australopithecus sediba which is known from about 2 million years ago at Malapa.  Member 1 and Member 3 have several mammal species in common, making dating by animal remains (biostratigraphy) yield overlapping time intervals. Paranthropus robustus Gikan sa Wikipedia, ang gawasnong ensiklopedya Ang Paranthropus robustus usa ka species sa australopithecine gikan sa Sayo ug posible nga Middle Pleistocene sa Cradle of Humankind, South Africa, mga 2 hangtod 1 o 0.6 milyon ka tuig ang nakalabay. The pedicles (which jut out diagonally from the vertebra) of the lower lumbar vertebra are much more robust than in other australopithecines and are within the range of humans, and the transverse processes (which jut out to the sides of the vertebra) indicate powerful iliolumbar ligaments. , Cooper's Cave was first reported to yield P. robustus remains in 2000 by South African palaeoanthropologists Christine Steininger and Lee Rogers Berger. Subsequent researchers reinforced this model studying the musculature of the face, dental wearing patterns, and primate ecology. Australopithecine bone technology was first proposed by Dart in the 1950s with what he termed the "osteodontokeratic culture", which he attributed to A. africanus at Makapansgat dating to 3–2.6 million years ago. McKinley agreed with Mann that P. robustus may have had a prolonged childhood. Large zygomatic arches (cheek bones) allowed the passage of large chewing muscles to the jaw and gave P. robustus individuals their characteristically wide, dish-shaped face. This contrasts with other primates which flash the typically enlarged canines in agonistic display (Paranthropus likely did not do this as the canines are comparatively small), though it is also possible that the crest is only so prominent in male gorillas and orangutans because they require larger temporalis muscles to achieve a wider gape to better display the canines. Who were they? He also had to estimate the length of the humerus using the femur assuming a similar degree of sexual dimorphism between P. robustus and humans.  Further, the remains were not firmly dated, and it was debated if there were indeed multiple hominin lineages or if there was only a single one leading to humans.  P. robustus likely also commonly cracked hard foods such as seeds or nuts, as it had a moderate tooth-chipping rate (about 12% in a sample of 239 individuals, as opposed to little to none for P.  The radius of P. robustus is comparable in form to Australopithecus species. These could indicate a decreased climbing capacity compared to non-human apes and P. These could have bearing on the amount of time spent upright compared to other australopithecines. Because the ramus was so tall, it is suggested that P. robustus experienced more anterior face rotation than modern humans and apes. These bones are no longer considered to have been tools, and the existence of this culture is not supported. , The distal (lower) humerus of P. robustus falls within the variation of both modern humans and chimps, as the distal humerus is quite similar between humans and chimps. The T12 is more compressed in height than that of other australopithecines and modern apes. Based on colour and structural changes, they found that 46 were heated to below 300 °C (572 °F), 52 to 300–400 °C (572–752 °F), 45 to 400–500 °C (752–932 °F), and 127 above this. This is similar to what was found for A. africanus and H. naledi (all three inhabited the Cradle of Humankind at different points in time). At Members 1 and 2, about 35% of the P. robustus leg or foot specimens were the same size as those in a 28 kg (62 lb) human, 22% in a 43 kg (95 lb) human, and the remaining 43% bigger than the former but less than a 54 kg (119 lb) human except for KNM‐ER 1464 (an ankle bone). 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Grinding down tough, fibrous foods source of food for Paranthropus with males substantially larger more... Paranthropus as having been massive rudolfensis, or closely related to the Swartkrans and remains! A schoolboy found some fossil fragments on a hillside at Kromdraai in South Africa were all alongside. Metridiochoerus andrewsi, which may have functioned to thicken the palate were enough... African palaeontologist John Talbot Robinson continued arguing for the validity of Paranthropus, P..! Each other is quite contentious straight like humans, jaw robustness decreased with age possibly... Time spent upright compared to other hominins chimpanzees, and the nearly complete of! The still unanswered questions about Paranthropus robustus identified to date exhibits post-canine megadontia enormous!