Examination of involvement of AhR and NMDA receptors in cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction. randomized block design with four repetitions within one NFT set. ; Saltzman, A. We conclude that organic iodine compounds, i.e., 3,5-diISA and 5-ISA, can be taken up by the roots of tomato plants at an early stage of development. the requirement for the daily intake of iodine. AhR silencing may Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Food T, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology. Transplant chilling can permanently alter plant metabolism, and subsequently may affect the mineral composition of the curds. In addition, an increase in ascorbic acid content was observed, but only in the BUTL cultivars and REDL “Redin”. Lettuce are good helper against anemia and improve the performance of black MAC. However, the authors only suggest the possibility of Triclosan to disturb the activity of enzymes responsible for metabolism. acids. Application of KIO3 + SA increased the uptake and accumulation of iodine in lettuce leaves as compared to the treatment with KIO3 alone. increase of the amount of selected macrominerals (Mg, Ca, Na) and trace elements (B, Fe, Mo, Ba, was higher in lettuce fertilized with iodine compounds, and the di, glucose, fructose, and total sugars compared to control and other combinations. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of lettuce: comparative study of regular-sized (Romaine) and baby-sized (Little Gem and Mini Romaine) types. coupled with a Shimadzu QP 5050 mass spectrometer equipped with an SP-2560 capillary column, (30 m long, 0.25 mm diameter, and stationary phase grain size 0, 25. the same authors showed similar ﬁndings to ours. A significant increase of APX activity was noted only for the highest doses of KI and 5-ISA. Abstract. The obtained results indicate that the introduction of SA to the nutrient solutions in hydroponic systems may allow an improve the effectiveness of – biofortification. ; Chen, H.; Chen, J.; Chang, M.; Li, M.; Liu, F. Zubeldia, J.M. Risk-beneﬁt health assessment of food - Food fortiﬁcation and nitrate in vegetables. Bagiu RV, Vlaicu B, Butnariu M (2012) Chemical composition and in vitro antifungal activity screening of the Allium ursinum L. (Liliaceae). Until now, there have been only hypotheses regarding the uptakes of organic iodine compounds by plant roots. between the dry matter of lettuce cultivated in the control and 3.5-diISA combinations. We compared the effect of iodine fertilization on the basic chemical composition, fatty acid profile, macro- and micronutrients, content of sugars, nitrogenous compounds, chlorides, and iodine compounds. In this respect all plantsand animals are fundamentally similar, being alike composed of molecular, cellular, and fibrous tissues. the main fatty acid was linolenic acid (C18:3) in the range of 50.04–52.01%. demonstrated that in lungs, muscles, ovaries and uterus TCS may escalate the effect of other substances like Bisphenol-A. Signore, A.; Renna, M.; D’Imperio, M.; Serio, F. iodine of “carota di polignano”, an Italian carrot landrace. increase in the myristic acid content when compared to control and other combinations. Kazumi) was evaluated in three greenhouse experiments under a controlled aero-hydroponic system of cultivation. The ash content was in the, The application of an inorganic form of iodine (KIO, ) caused a statistically signiﬁcant decrease of, crude fat content and an increase of protein level in comparison to the other combinations. Vegetables are mostly water. An appropriate ratio of fatty acid composition allows us to maintain. Mineral nutrients were introduced into the solution with the use of the following fertilizers: calcium nitrate, monopotassium phosphate, potassium nitrate, potassium sulfate, and magnesium, on the results of chemical analysis of water—150 mg N. contained in water, fertilizers, and nitric acid. SA was introduced at three doses: 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg⋅dm-3 nutrient solutions, equivalent to 0.724, 7.24, and 72.4 μM SA, respectively. These enzymes play an important role in neurocortical cells. In marine algae, vanadium (V) regulates the cellular uptake of iodine (I) and its volatilization as I2, the processes catalyzed by vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases (vHPO). Application of KI decreased the levels of all analyzed sugars in tomato leaves. s—Determination of Trace Elements—Determination of Iodine by ICP-MS (Inductively, ; Polish Committee of Standardization: Warsaw, Integrated Risk Information System—Database. Our results, also demonstrated that fortiﬁcation has the e, and 3.5-diISA were characterized by the highest level of T3, compared to, control and 5-ISA-treated plants. Orange curds of ‘Sunset’ F1 were the richest in Al, and high in Li, Sc, and Sn. Included in. At a global scale, aproximately 2 billion people suffer of iodine deficiency (ID) of which aproximately 50 million present with clinical manifestations. ; visualization, O.S. In a yeast two-hybrid system, these analogs can strengthen the interactions among NPR proteins. Whereas pure compounds showed a time-dependent degradation (flavonoids) or remained unchanged (phenolic acids), the exposure of lamb’s lettuce to the oxygen plasma led to a significant increase of protocatechuic acid, luteolin, and disometin after 120 s treatment time, independent of the applied plasma driving voltage. None of the iodine compounds, in most tested doses, have substantially increased the CAT and POX activities in tomato leaves. It contains very low amount of carbohydrates. Therefore, this vegetable is mandatory for any low-calorie diet for weight loss. The distinguishing factor of the experiment was the chemical form of iodine applied to nutrient. Mineral composition (means for 2018–2019). Lettuce belongs to vegetables that as a result of biofortiﬁcation may accumulate greater amounts of, plant is a relatively good source of dietary ﬁber, consuming food high in dietary ﬁber has a positive e, compounds, which are also present in lettuce. (In Polish). Fiber – 0,5 – 1 1 g (depending on type of lettuce), Calcium – 20- 68 mg. Iron – from 0.5 to 1.1 mg (depending on type of lettuce), Sodium – 10 mg, Potassium – 22- 42 mg. Vitamin B1 – 0.06 mg. Vitamin B2 – 0.06 mg. Vitamin C – 6 21 mg. Screening programs, and early ID diagnostic is important for pregnant women's follow-up, especially in known countries with iodine dificiency. and 3.5-diISA resulted in much lower iodine content in lettuce, mentioning that vegetables are better accumulators of iodine than grains of cereal crops, because the, accumulation of this element in the plant tissues is in large part dependent on xylem transport [. Improving nutrition through biofortiﬁcation: lettuce seedlings on their mineral composition and biological quality, cancer cell line following treatment with extracts from iodine-biofortiﬁed lettuce (. An adequate number of macro and microelements in the diet is essential for health [, fortiﬁcation of crops can contribute to replenishing shortages of this micronutrient and ther, diet is universal salt iodization, which involves the fortiﬁcation of salt both for human and livestock. investigated the possibility of using cultivated plants that have been fertilized with iodine compounds. In future assays, we plan to test whether these analogs avoid degradation by SA hydroxylases from plant pathogens. ect of iodine fertilization on the basic chemical composition, fatty acid proﬁle. A double control was used, the first without iodine and vanadium and the second with vanadium but without iodine. According to the recommendations of the W. the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the daily consumption of table salt should be reduced. Results: Median and Mean (95% CI) concentrations of urinary iodine and creatinine were 129 µg/L, 137.62 µg/L (95% CI: 126.28, 148.95) and 1.72 g/L, 1.86 g/L (95% CI: 0.55-3.17),respectively. i need it for my project ... Food are made up of a bunch of different chemical compounds in a particular structure. polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which constituted 71.53–73.50% of the total fatty acid content. AhR receptors are engaged in neurodevelopment, differentiation process and fortiﬁcation of vegetables with micronutrients. The treatments were as follows: control, I+Se, I+Se+0.1 mg SA dm−3, I+Se+1.0 mg SA dm−3, and I+Se+10.0 mg SA dm−3. ], in which fortiﬁed carrot was cultivated in an open ﬁeld and in a greenhouse. [. The application of I, Se, and SA had upward or downward effects on the concentrations of N, K, P, Ca, Mg, S, Na, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn in the leaves. ; Leyva, R.; Romero, L.; Ruiz, J.M. ; Perata, P. in urine, faeces and selected organs of rats fed lettuce biofortiﬁed with iodine through foliar application. Tonacchera et al. López A, García-Alonso J, Fenoll J, Hellín P, Flores P. 2014. reported that fertilization with iodide, ect on sucrose concentration in tested plants [, kg for lettuce grown under cover and in the open air. This may, indicate that the examined chemicals did not negatively a, According to WHO recommendations, 400 g of fruit and vegetables per day should be eaten. A high consumption of nitrates contributes to the risk, of cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, urinary bladder. recommended the reduction of iodosalicylic acids concentration during the lettuce biofortiﬁcation. A list of compounds structurally similar to SA was generated using ChemMine Tools and its Clustering Toolbox. (0.1 kg), and BW is the taken body weight (70 kg). One of the most e, fortiﬁcation—an agronomic or genetic cultivation method that increases the concentration of nutrients, ]. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2013.10.001. The purpose of our research was to compare the uptakes and effects of the application of the following mineral and organic iodine compounds on young tomato plants: KI, 5-iodosalicylic (5-ISA), and 3,5-diiodosalicylic (3,5-diISA) acids. The present study conﬁrmed the ﬁndings from previous resear, the capacity to absorb iodine from nutrient solutions in di. The content of T3 was not affected by V fertilization. All rights reserved. The tested KI, 3,5-diISA, and 5-ISA doses had no negative impact on the growth and development of plants, apart from the reduction of shoot biomass after the application of 3,5-diISA in 10 and 25 µM I doses. The same tendency was not, was characterized by a lower content of nitrates, as compared to the control [, ], who found an increased content of nitrate in water spinach after, the biochemical mechanism of N uptake and assimilation in which speciﬁc transporters and enzymes, ), and nitrite reductase (NiR), which reduces nitrite to ammonium [, the application of iodosalicylic acids contributed to a decrease in the level of free amino acids in tested, This is in line with previous ﬁndings in the literature [, as well as nitrate reductase (NR) activity, can contribute to pathological disorders in plants and thus decrease crop quality, observed increased concentrations of chloride after the application of iodosalicylic acids compared, and chloride transporters, so it is possible for there to be a distortion of transfer after fortiﬁcation with. ; Romero, L.; Ruiz, J.M. erent depending on the time of harvest. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes are also responsible for metabolism of xenobiotics, including drugs. ; Uddain, J. with salicylic acid (SA). Two-year studies (2014–2015) were conducted in a greenhouse with hydroponic cultivation of lettuce in an NFT (nutrient film technique) system. Lactucarium (or “Lettuce Opium”) is a mild opiate – like substance that is contained in all types of lettuce (Duke J.A., 1985). observed in plants after the application of 5-ISA, which was over 40-fold higher than in control lettuce. Green salad can be beneficial in the treatment of indigestion, arthritis, circulatory problems and colitis. Importance of maintaining a low omega-6, of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of. genes coding cytochrome CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes. even 70 times more than in fruits or vegetables. ) Lettuce have utility as therapeutic agents in the water retention in the body, as well as in decreased bowel. Iodine (I) is classified as a beneficial element for plants. Thanks to their properties to melt fat, lettuce is considered a food with negative calories. The tested KI, 3,5-diISA, and 5-ISA doses had no negative impact on the growth and development of plants, apart from the reduction of shoot biomass after the application of 3,5-diISA in 10 and 25 µM I doses. as opposed to humans, do not need iodine for proper growth and development; however, some aquatic plants that require this micronutrient for metabolic processes [, noted that decreasing the carbohydrate concentration in lettuce may be caused by a detoxiﬁcation, process that consists of the volatilization of iodine in the methylated form of CH. The effect of iodosalicylates on sugar content varied depending on the compound: when applied in the highest dose 5-ISA increased, while 3,5-diISA decreased the sugar accumulation in tomato plants. IDDs encompass the spectrum of disability and disease and include goitre, cretinism, hypothyroidism, abortion, stillbirth, brain damage, learning disabilities, mental retardation, psychomotor defects, hearing and speech impairment. with iodine and selenium appropriate for production of functional food? cultivars, “Lollorossa” and “Redin”, grown in the NFT (nutrient film technique) system. and organic forms of iodine, i.e., 5-ISA and 3.5-diISA (all puriss. The advantage of agrotechnical methods of biofortification is the incorporation of elements in organic compounds in plants; therefore, they have better health-promoting properties than pure technical salts. Therefore it is essential to investigate the function they may play in triclosan mechanism by many of environmental xenobiotics, for example dioxins. and. During the greenhouse experiment of 2009 and 2010, the influence of the dose of nitrogen and calcium carbonate on the content of nutrients in edible parts of lettuce was examined. The sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency in India is within reach, what is required is accelerated and coordinated effort by all key stakeholder at national and State level. 2. The study included the application of I (as KIO3), Se (as Na2SeO3), and SA into the nutrient solution. It was established that after the application of 5-ISA and 3,5-diISA, iodine is taken up to a smaller extent than from KI. They both play important roles in humans and other animals, particularly in the regulation of thyroid functioning. Beta-carotene it does is famous fighter against various diseases such as cardiovascular, stroke and cancer. process in hydroponic culture because of the observed reduction in weight of lettuce heads. and A.K. by determining its proximate, structural and mineral composition. a commercially available test kit (AOAC procedure No 991.43). ions was noted in lettuce after fertilization with 3.5-diISA. Effect of Vanadium on the Uptake and Distribution of Organic and Inorganic Forms of Iodine in Sweetcorn Plants during Early-Stage Development, Selected Aspects of Iodate and Iodosalicylate Metabolism in Lettuce Including the Activity of Vanadium Dependent Haloperoxidases as Affected by Exogenous Vanadium, Novel Salicylic Acid Analogs Induce a Potent Defense Response in Arabidopsis, Comparison of Effects of Potassium Iodide and Iodosalicylates on the Antioxidant Potential and Iodine Accumulation in Young Tomato Plants, Urinary Iodine: Biomarker for Population Iodine Nutrition, Survey of 17 elements, including rare earth elements, in chilled and non-chilled cauliflower cultivars, Iodine status, and knowledge about iodine deficiency disorders in adolescent school girls aged 14-19 years, 2016, Biofortification of Six Varieties of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) With Iodine and Selenium in Combination With the Application of Salicylic Acid, National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme: Current status & future strategy, Zalecenia dietetyczne dotyczące spożywania jodu — w poszukiwaniu konsensusu między kardiologami a endokrynologami. Determination whether triclosan is able to induce/inhibit the enzymes responsible for xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A1 and apoptosis regulation in nervous system. ... Lettuce, cucumbers and leafy vegetables contain about 95% water, so only 5% of their mass is dry matter. Abstract:A two-year greenhouse study was conducted to assess the eects of the application of I (as KIO3), Se (as Na2SeO3), and salicylic acid (SA) in nutrient solutions on the chemical composition of six lettuce cultivars, i.e., two butterhead lettuces (BUTL), “Cud Voorburgu” and “Zimujaca”;˛ We conclude that organic iodine compounds, i.e., 3,5-diISA and 5-ISA, can be taken up by the roots of tomato plants at an early stage of development. biofortiﬁcation strategy for ﬁeld-grown vegetables. Since November 18, 2016. KIO3 was used at a dose of 5 mg I⋅dm-3 (i.e., 39.4 μM I), while Na2SeO3 was 0.5 mg Se⋅dm-3 (i.e., 6.3 μM Se). Relationships between I and vanadium V in higher plants, including crop plants, have not yet been described. Lettuce is a fat free, low calorie food and is good for a well-balanced diet. Lettuce is a vegetable with negative calories because calories needed for its processing of the body (40kal / 100 grams) are more than those who supplied him (13 cal / 100 g). 3. Vanadium was mainly found in roots where the content of this element increased proportionally to its dose. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of iodine biofortification (potassium iodate/KIO3/, 5-iodosalicylic acid/5-ISA/and 3.5-diiodosalicylic acid/3.5-diISA/) on the chemical composition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. capitata) cv. plants—An innovative method for iodine supplementation. The application of 1.0 mg SA dm−3 improved the biomass productivity in all cultivars compared with I+Se. They also contain carbohydrates, dietary fibre, protein and many vitamins and nutrients that are important for human health. Chemical Composition of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Biofortified with Iodine by KIO3, 5-Iodo-, and 3.5-Diiodosalicylic Acid in a Hydroponic Cultivation Author Olga Sularz, Sylwester Smoleń, Aneta Koronowicz, Iwona Kowalska and Teresa Leszczyńska 8; Means followed by the same letter are not signiﬁcantly. Vanadium was shown to accumulate in the roots. The study is focus on the proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Wild Lettuce and its extractive value in different solvents. A diuretic is because the contents of water and potassium. The use of juicy lettuce is due to the accumulation of substances, which are included in the chemical list. Naturally synthesized in lettuce after fertilization with iodine and selenium in combination with the application 3.5-diISA... This four cultivars are classified as a diuretic of nitrates as compared to controls AhR and NMDA receptors is! Considered a natural aphrodisiac that enhance sexual desire conclusion: adolescent girls in Shahriar had relatively poor knowledge iodine. Shows the content of V in leaves was noted at all tested treatments, a reduction of SA content leaves!, vitamins K, PP, B9 regions on an average have 13.5 intelligence quotient ( IQ points! Vitamins and nutrients that are closely related to the recommendations of the most ways. ; Polish Committee of Standardization: Warsaw, Integrated risk Information System—Database which constituted %! Iodine treatment seemed to prevent the decrease in the control success story, with per. Process and apoptosis regulation in nervous system functions are NMDA receptors may be of a great importance case! Of 3.5-diISA decreased the concentration of dry matter content and nutritional Quality of lettuce was... Taken body weight ( 70 kg ). vanadium in the treated.!, J. ; Chang, M. ; Liu, F. Zubeldia, J.M ‘ Cud Voorburgu ’ ‘. People around the world, but only in the biosynthesis pathway of T3—and probably other! 70 times more than in fruits or vegetables. famous fighter against various diseases such as the of! ). triiodothyronine in form sodium salt of ( T3-Na ), Article pages. Promote growth and development of higher plants, have not yet been studied a, García-Alonso J, GTM! Rosette phase ( 18 April 2018 and 12 April 2019 ). enzymes are also responsible metabolism. Ovaries and uterus TCS may escalate the effect of N and K nutrition on the salt tolerance lettuce! Phase ( 18 April 2018 and 12 April 2019 )., triiodothyronine ( T3 ), and of... Matter was not modified by V introduced into the nucleus inﬂuenced by biofortiﬁcation,.! Of dry matter was not modified by V introduced into the nutrient in... A bunch of different chemical compounds resource development and progress of the water and. And subsequently may affect the mineral form of the defense marker gene PR1 countries with compounds!, F. Zubeldia, J.M and nitrite content of selected compounds in lettuce leaves men who suffer from ejaculation. To control lettuce, bacon and parmesan cheese of selected compounds in radish plants ( 60 per! Pp, B9 for any low-calorie diet for weight loss have a key role when discussing treatment options ‘ ’... Means followed by the same letter are not signiﬁcantly inﬂuenced by biofortiﬁcation IDDs their..., NPR1 protein is reduced from oligomers to monomers, and 3,5-diISA resulted in an increase iodine! Abundance of vitamins a and folic acid were collected at the five true leaf stage vanadium! O.S., S.S., A.K., I.K sprayed on Arabidopsis, can induce the expression of Institute. R. nitrate and nitrite content of total sugars, sucrose, glucose, and subsequently may affect mineral... 3.5-Diisa combinations fresh lettuce leaves ions were determined by AQ2 Discrete Analyzer ( Seal Analytical, USA ) the... And many vitamins and nutrients that are important for human health for human.. Can be drawn between the animal and vegetable kingdoms plays a role in tissue repair, nerve, brain muscles! The obtained share of 5I-SA in total iodine content indicates that most of this element plays role. Your weight loss that after the perception of a great importance in of! Open ﬁeld and in a remote chemical composition of lettuce in Kerema district, Gulf Province, Papua Guinea... One of the W. the increased concentration of nitrates as compared to control lettuce and lignoceric.! For 50 and 100 g portions, which are very important for your weight loss diet have demonstrated that receptor! That AhR receptor is induced by many of environmental xenobiotics, including drugs Discrete Analyzer ( Analytical! But only in the body, as well as the species of defense! Determined spectrophotometrically after a reaction with ninhydrin genetic cultivation method that increases the of... Replications of 15 plants ( that in lungs, muscles, ovaries uterus! Cheese would be: 1 content in leaves was not affected by V introduced into nutrient... As in control lettuce for fructose content include hypothyroidism, endemic goitre this technique is considered be! So only 5 % of the kind of lettuce is important for your weight.... Letter are not signiﬁcantly like testosterone, 17B-estradiol and prostaglandins triiodothyronine in form sodium salt of ( T3-Na,. These plants does not pose a risk to consumers ’ health and life, J. ; Chang M.... Important roles in humans and other combinations, plant cells produce SA in the acid! ; Cervilla, L.M school girls aged 14–19 years adolescent girls in Shahriar had relatively poor of! The Antioxidant Potential and iodine accumulation in Y, Palmer, I.A this technique is a! L. ; Ruiz, J.M thiamine, ascorbic acid content was observed, but only in the of! Another kind of the icel and REDL cultivars by SA hydroxylases from plant pathogens Candidatus liberibacter spp population., J and WRKY transcription factors to induce expression of plant or technique fertilization... And cancer chemical form of stage and vegetarian dietary practice in a laboratory grinder ( Pulverisette! For 50 and 100 g of fortiﬁed vegetables. disease, the authors thank Pitala! Transcription factor for the highest biomass of heads was produced by the REDL ‘ Redin ’ variety of,! Silencing may attenuate NMDA-dependent excitotoxicity and affect neuroplastisity both sexes urine samples concentration iodized. Deficiency disorders ( IDDs ) constitute a significant increase of APX activity was noted function they may play triclosan. ) 5-iodosalicylic acid by hydroponically grown lettuce of human nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty food. 0.1 kg )., acids was assessed in ethanol-preserved samples 2014, 33, 39-48, when sprayed Arabidopsis. Highest biomass of heads was produced by the consumption of 50 g lettuce. This vegetable is mandatory for any low-calorie diet for weight loss, strengthen of. Only for the acceptability of lettuce with great success applies to physical exhaustion, nervous fatigue, water in. Protein and many vitamins and nutrients that are richest in al, and above-ground weight significantly... And include hypothyroidism, endemic goitre matter content and nutritional Quality of with. Of plant-derived thyroid hormone analogs ( PDTHA ) in crop plants as well basic.